Journal article
Latin Hypercube Sensitivity Analysis and Non-destructive Test to Evaluate the Pull-out Strength of Steel Anchor Bolts Embedded in Concrete


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Publication Details
Author list: Muhammad Saleem and Akira Hosoda
Publisher: Elsevier
Publication year: 2021
Journal: Construction and Building Materials
Volume number: 290
Issue number: 5 July 2021
Start page: 1
End page: 13
Number of pages: 13
ISSN: 0950-0618
Web of Science ID:
PubMed ID:
Scopus ID: 85104356193
eISSN: 1879-0526
Languages: English-United States


Anchor bolts are extensively employed in the various industries such as construction, mechanical and

mining. Their applications range from installing permanent objects such as hybrid structures, lighting

piles, direction signs to structures installed for serving temporary purpose. Several destructive testing

methods have been proposed to investigate the pull-out strength of anchor bolts. However, the first real

non-destructive testing method that used Schmidt hammer rebound number to estimate the load carrying

capacity of anchor bolts was successfully proposed by the authors. In this method the authors successfully

relate the pull-out strength of the steel anchors, N, embedded in the concrete with the

Schmidt hammer rebound number, R. The research team was successful in identifying anchor bolts with

improper installation resulting in lower pull-out strength. It was observed during experimentation that

strength of steel anchor bolts depends upon several factors such as concrete strength, embedment length,

bolt diameter, its alignment and rebound number. The cut-off value, R, of 56, 61 was identified for steel

anchors of 8 mm, 10 mm diameters with embedment lengths of 50 mm and the R value of 55, 53 and 51

was identified as cut-off for 12 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm diameters with embedment lengths of 50 mm

and 70 mm, respectively. Anchors depicting higher rebound values can be considered as properly

installed while anchors with lower rebound value indicate defects in installation and quality of surrounding

concrete. Furthermore, a detailed random parametric analysis employing Latin Hypercube Sampling

method to conduct sensitivity analysis of 144 anchor bolts test data. Five diameter anchor bolts with two

embedment depths were tested and analyzed. Through the analysis of experimental data, the influence of

each parameter was investigated in order to ascertain its impact on the load carrying capacity of the

anchor bolts. It is confirmed that the alignment of the anchor bolt is most dominant factor among all random

factors considered in the analysis. Furthermore, the embedment length holds a larger influence on

the pull-out strength as compared to the bolt diameter.


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Last updated on 2021-06-05 at 10:58

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