Journal article
A Comparative Study of Cell Specific Effects of Systemic and Volatile Anesthetics on Identified Motor Neurons and Interneurons of Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), both in the Isolated Brain and in Single Cell Culture


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Author list: Hadi Fathi Moghadam, Talay Yar, Munir M. Qazzaz, Ibrahim Abdelrazig Ahmed and William Winlow
Publisher: Frontiers
Publication year: 2019
Journal: Frontiers in Physiology
Volume number: 10
Issue number: May 2019
Start page: 1
End page: 21
Number of pages: 21
ISSN: 1664-042X
Web of Science ID: 000470223200001
PubMed ID: 31214039
Scopus ID: 85068262869
eISSN: 1664-042X


1. A comparative descriptive analysis of systemic (sodium pentobarbital, sodium thiopentone, ketamine) and volatile (halothane, isoflurane, enflurane) general anesthetics revealed important differences in the neuronal responses of identified motor neurons and interneurons in the isolated central nervous system (CNS) and cultured identified neurons in single cell culture of Lymnaea stagnalis (L.).

2. At high enough concentrations all anesthetics eventually caused cessation of spontaneous or evoked action potentials, but volatile anesthetics were much faster acting. Halothane at low concentrations caused excitation, thought to be equivalent to the early excitatory phase of anesthesia. Strong synaptic inputs were not always abolished by pentobarbital.

3. There were cell specific concentration-dependent responses to halothane and pentobarbital in terms of membrane potential, action potential characteristics, the after hyperpolarization and patterned activity. Individual neurons generated specific responses to the applied anesthetics.

4. The inhalation anesthetics, enflurane, and isoflurane, showed little concentration dependence of effect, in contrast to results obtained with halothane. Enflurane was faster acting than halothane and isoflurane was particularly different, producing quiescence in all cells types studied at all concentrations studied.

5. Halothane, enflurane, the barbiturate general anesthetics, pentobarbital, and sodium thiopentone and the dissociative anesthetic ketamine, produced two distinctly different effects which could be correlated with cell type and their location in the isolated brain: either a decline in spontaneous and evoked activity prior to quiescence in interneurons or paroxysmal depolarizing shifts (PDS) in motor neurons, again prior to quiescence, which were reversed when the anesthetic was eliminated from the bath. In the strongly electrically coupled motor neurons, VD1 and RPD2, both types of response were observed, depending on the anesthetic used. Thus, with the exception isoflurane, all the motor neurons subjected to the anesthetic agents studied here were capable of generating PDS in situ, but the interneurons did not do so.

6. The effects of halothane on isolated cultured neurons indicates that PDS can be generated by single identified neurons in the absence of synaptic inputs. Further, many instances of PDS in neurons that do not generate it in situ have been found in cultured neurons. The nature of PDS is discussed.


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Last updated on 2019-03-09 at 13:23