Journal article
Association between sex hormones and migraine in young Saudi females


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Publication Details
Author list: Lubna I. Al Asoom, Modhi S. Alajmi, Reem R. Alsudairi, Abeer A. AlShamlan, Amal A. Almomaten, Asma A. Alqarni, Manal H. Alshammari, Nazish Rafique, Rabia Latif, Ahmed A. Alsunni, Dana A. Almohazey, Hind S. Alsuwat, Sayed Abdul Azeez and Francis J. Borgio
Publisher: Medical Services Department Saudi Arabian Armed Forces
Publication year: 2021
Journal: Saudi Medical Journal
Journal acronym: SMJ
Volume number: 42
Issue number: 1
Start page: 793
End page: 797
Number of pages: 5
ISSN: 0379-5284
Web of Science ID: 000668918000013
PubMed ID: 34187925
Scopus ID: 85109035661
eISSN: 1658-3175


Objectives: To assess the sex hormone levels in young Saudi female migraineurs during a migraine attack and during pain-free periods and compare them with control subjects.

Methods: A case-control study involving 14 Saudi female migraineurs and 21 control subjects was conducted between December 2019 and March 2020. Demographic and disease history data were collected through participant interviews. Blood samples were drawn during the migraine attack and pain-free periods.

Results: Follicular (30.00±19.60; p<0.001) and luteal (39.79±11.45; p=0.037) estrogen levels were significantly higher in patients with non-menstrual related migraine (NMM), while luteal testosterone levels (1.10±0.31; p=0.023) were significantly higher in patients with menstrually related migraine (MM). Body mass index (BMI) was higher in patients with NMM (25.77±6.53; p=0.013), and it was found to be associated with follicular estrogen (p=0.016), progesterone (p=0.018), and pain intensity (p=0.042). Luteal estrogen level was significantly lower (13.96±7.88; p=0.036) in patients with luteal onset of attack.

Conclusion: High estrogen levels were found to mediate NMM, their effect being more pronounced with increase in BMI; whereas low luteal estrogen levels mediated MM. Young females with MM might have high luteal testosterone levels, and a compensatory protective role could be surmised accordingly.


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Last updated on 2021-07-09 at 14:49