Journal article
Management and outcome of post-infectious multiloculated hydrocephalus: A case series


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Author list: Abdulrazaq A Alojan, Assayl R Alotaibi, Hussain N Alalhareth, Ali D Alwadei, Ahmed Ammar
Publisher: Medknow Publications
Publication year: 2021
Journal: Saudi Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
Journal name in source: Saudi J Med Med Sci; Saudi Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
Journal acronym: SJMMS
Volume number: 9
Issue number: 3
Start page: 261
End page: 266
Number of pages: 6
ISSN: 1658-631X
Web of Science ID:
PubMed ID:
Scopus ID:
eISSN: 2321-4856


Background and importance: Infection following ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement is a recognized complication, with variable incidence rates worldwide. Development of post-infectious multiloculated hydrocephalus (MLH) is likely if VPS infection is improperly managed, in turn affecting the prognosis. There is a lack of studies from Saudi Arabia regarding patients' functional outcome in relation to different variables.Objectives: To study the causative organisms, related variables and patient outcomes in MLH after VPS infection.Methods: This case series is a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus from 2011 to 2019. Patients were included if they were aged <18 years, had confirmed cerebrospinal fluid/blood infection with radiological evidence of MLH, and were regularly followed-up. Functional status score was used to evaluate the outcomes.Results: A total of 150 patients underwent VPS insertion during the study period, of which 12 (8%) had postinfection MLH. The mean age at diagnosis and follow-up was 9 and 19 months, respectively. Ten patients developed MLH after their first VPS infection and one each developed MLH following the second and third VPS infections. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures mostly grew only single organisms (6/12), with Staphylococcus species being the most common. All patients underwent navigated endoscopic fenestration; nine patients required VPS placement and three required redo endoscopic fenestration surgery. All patients were developmentally delayed, with the majority (75%) having a functional status score of 6–10.Conclusion: Development of MLH after VPS infection is debilitating and requires prompt treatment. Although the overall functional outcome is poor, evolving neuroendoscopic techniques with tailored preoperative planning may play a role in reducing the adverse effect of shunt multiplicity, shunt infections and the higher failure rate among patients with complex hydrocephalus.

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Last updated on 2021-28-10 at 11:25