Journal article
Assessment of patient safety culture

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Publication Details
Subtitle: A nationwide survey of community pharmacists in Kuwait
Author list: Fatemah Mohammad Alsaleh, Eman Ali Abahussain, Hamed Hamdi Altabaa, Mohammed Faisal Al-Bazzaz and Noor Barak Almandil
Publisher: BioMed Central
Publication year: 2018
Journal: BMC Health Services Research
Journal name in source: BMC health services research
Volume number: 18
Issue number: 1
Start page: 1
End page: 15
Number of pages: 15
ISSN: 1472-6963
Web of Science ID: 000450994400001
PubMed ID: 30466436
Scopus ID: 85057122021
eISSN: 1472-6963


Medication errors have been the largest component of medical errors threatening patient safety worldwide. Several international health bodies advocate measuring safety culture within healthcare organizations as an effective strategy for sustainable safety improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in a Middle Eastern country at the level of community pharmacy, to examine safety culture and to evaluate the extent to which patient safety is a strategic priority.


A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture (PSOPSC), developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), was used to collect data. PSOPSC is a self-administered questionnaire which was previously tested for validity and reliability. The questionnaire was distributed among pharmacists who work in community pharmacies from the five governorates of Kuwait (Capital, Hawalli, Farwaniya, Jahra, and Ahmadi). The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software, version 24 was used for analysing data.


A total of 255 community pharmacists from the five governorates were approached to participate in the study, of whom 253 returned a completed questionnaire, with the response rate of 99%. Results from the study showed that patient safety is a strategic priority in many aspects of patient safety standards at the level of community pharmacies. This was reflected by the high positive response rate (PRR) measures demonstrated in the domains of “Teamwork” (96.8%), “Organizational Learning-Continuous Improvement” (93.2%) and “Patient Counselling” (90.9%). On the other hand, the lowest PRR was given to the “Staffing, Work Pressure, and Pace” domain which scored 49.7%.


Understanding community pharmacists’ perspectives of patient safety culture within their organization is critical. It can help identify areas of strength and those that require improvement, which can help support decision about actions to improve patient safety. The current study showed that urgent attention should be given to the areas of weakness, mainly in the dimension of “Staffing, Work Pressure and Pace.” The pharmacists pointed the need for adequate breaks between shifts and less distractible work environment to perform their jobs accurately.

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Last updated on 2019-15-01 at 13:30